- 1. Introduction
- 2. Class members
- 3. Prescribing points
- 4. Principal risks and risk-reduction measures
- 4.1 Gastrointestinal adverse effects
- 4.2 Central nervous system and psychiatric effects
- 4.3 Cardiovascular adverse effects
- 4.4 Respiratory adverse effects
- 4.5 Effects on the skin
- 4.6 Other adverse effects
- 4.7 Dependence and withdrawal
- 4.8 Important drug interactions
- 4.9 Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- 4.10 Overdose
- 5. Further information and MHRA alerts on opioids
- 6. Self-assessment questions
- 7. Glossary of terms
- 8. Module evaluation
This learning module on managing medicines risk is derived largely from summaries of product characteristics (which, in turn, are based on rigorous evaluation of submitted evidence). Supplementary sources such as treatment guidelines have been used to expand on advice on managing specific risks of opioids.
The module does not cover general advice on managing pain or other opioid-responsive conditions. You should consult other resources (including evidence-based national guidelines) for advice on selecting an intervention from the range of treatment options available, taking into account all the individual clinical circumstances.
We will update this learning module from time to time.
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